It is one of the basic subjects in medical studies, which deals with the structure of human body. This is one of the vital subjects useful for better understanding of principles of treatment. Knowledge of applied anatomy will enable the scholar to do a preliminary diagnosis of the disease. Better understanding of the anatomy of the organs and systems will make a better surgeon. Hands on training in preparation of models, embalming techniques, plastination techniques, anatomical paper art, drawings – collectively, do and learn policy is adopted in the department.

Body Donation Campaign is launched from the department as well. Anatomy museum based on the principles of Ayurveda is established for better understanding of the subject for the benefit of medical graduates, school children and public.

Vision

“Shareera Rachana for healthy human being”

Mission

  • Preparing the graduates and specialists in anatomical expertise and integrate interdisciplinary Teaching
  • Training the scholars to teach basic and applied human anatomical knowledge geared towards Ayurveda health
  • Exploring the unexplored areas of research in core concepts, terminology and distinctive Ayurveda perspective on human anatomy and its clinical application

DISSERTATION (PG)

Sl. No. Name Of The Investigator Guide Co-Guide Title Of Research Date Of  Commencement Of Research Date Of Completion Of Research
1 Dr. Sneha H.S Dr. Uma B Gopal Anatomical Study Of Gulpha Pradesha With Special Reference To Antarkandara Sira For Identification And Determination Of Location Of Sira For Siravyadha In Grudhrasi. May-20 Mar-22
2 Dr. Gowda Ketan Annayya Dr. Prasanna S A Comprehensive   Study On Sandhi Shareera With Special Refernce To Mandala Sandhi May-20 Mar-22
3 Dr. Kamalashree H.M Dr. Uma B Gopal Anatomical Consideration Of Vidhura Marma –
A Cadaveric Study
May-20 Mar-22
4 Dr. Akhil Dev Dr. Anju Thomas Applied Anatomical Understanding Of Amsaphalaka marma-
A Cadaveric Study
May-20 Mar-22
5 Dr. Jigisha P S Dr. Uma B Gopal Anatomical understanding of Neela and Manya Marma By Cadaveric dissection May-19 Mar-21
6 Dr. Remya K Simon Dr. Uma B Gopal A cadaveric study on understanding Vapavahana as Koshtanga May-19 Mar-21
7 Dr. Sanchita Dr. Anju Thomas  A cadaveric study on Avedhya Sira of Hanu Sandhi for Its anatomical consideration May-19 Mar-21
8 Dr. Ashok Dr. Anju Thomas A Cadevaric Study On Medropari Romaraji ,An Avedhya Siraand Its Anatomical Considerations May-18 Mar-20
9 Dr. Daiarisa Rymbai Dr. Anju Thomas Dr. VISHWANATH D. “A cadaveric study on anatomical consideration of apastambha marma” May-18 Mar-20
10 Dr. Muteeba Naz Dr.Uma B. Gopal Dr.Shailaja U A Retrospective Study on Tulya Gotra Vis-À-Vis Consanguineous Marriages and its Effects on Progeny May-18 Mar-20
11 Dr. Simi Dr. Uma B.Gopal “A study on understanding the structural entity of
taalu as a moolasthana of udhakavaha srotas”
May-18 Mar-20
12 Dr. Surendra Choudhary Dr. Uma B Gopal Dr. Basavraja G.N. “A study on anatomical consideration of apanga
marma- a vital area in lateral aspect of orbit”
May-18 Mar-20
13 Dr. Akshata B Kichadi Dr. Uma B Gopal Comparitive anatomical study of flexibility of
jaanu sandhi in individuals who are performing
and not performing suryanamaskara with special
reference to peshi shareera
May-17 Mar-19
14 Dr. Jeevan Kumar Giri Dr. Anju Thomas Anatomical understanding of vitapa maram by means of cadaveric dissection May-17 Mar-19
15 Dr. Jyoti Umarji Dr.Uma.B.Gopal A correlative study on greeva pramana and
height in dwandwaja prakruti individuals
May-17 Mar-19
16 Dr. Manu Krishnan K Dr. Uma.B Gopal An Applied Anatomical Study On Jaaladhara Sira And Its Relation With Koorchashira Marma In Urdhwa Sakha May-17 Mar-19
17 Dr. Santosh Kumar Singarapu Dr. Uma.B Gopal A Histological Study On Twak Uttpati Based On Fetal Cadaveric Dissection May-17 Mar-19
18 Dr. Vislavath Srikanth Dr. Anju Thomas A cadaveric study of vaikalyakara marma with
special reference to ani marma
May-17 Mar-19
19 Dr Pranav Krishna Dr.S wati.S.Bedekar Study of Shukravaha Srotas with Special Reference to Relation between Vrushana Pramana and Semen Profile May-16 Mar-18
20 Dr Chaitra Dr. Uma B Gopal A Structural Study of Danta Sampat in Dwidoshaja Prakruti Individuals May-16 Mar-18
21 Dr Ankit Tyagi Dr.Uma B Gopal A Study on Regional and Applied Anatomy of Kukundara marma May-15 Mar-17
22 Dr. Nirmala Joshi Dr.Swati S. Bedekar Comprehensive study of shiro marma-abhighata with special reference to head injury May-15 Mar-17
23 Dr. Swapna H.N Dr.Swati.S.Bedekar Comprehensive study of garbhaposhana and its relation with morphology of apara and nabhi nadi May-15 Mar-17
24 Dr. R. Ganesh Babu Dr.Uma.B.Gopal Regional anatomy of indrabasti marma-a cadaveric study May-15 Mar-17
25 Dr. Gouranga Maity Dr.Swati.S.Bedekar Comprehensive study of Adhoshakhagata urvi marma May-15 Mar-17
26 Dr. Puneetha S Dr. B.G. Kulkarni A cadaveric study on guda as pranayatana May-14 Mar-16
27 Dr. Varun Vinayak Dr. Uma.B Gopal A cadaveric study to ascertain structural entity of pranavaha srotas w.s.r. to
hrudayam moolam
May-14 Mar-16
28 Dr. Vishak S Ravi Dr. B.G. Kulkarni Critical Analysis Of Amsa Pradesha With
Special Reference To Amsa Marma
May-14 Mar-16
29 Dr Aneesh T Dr. Swati.S. Bedekar A Comprehensive Study on Gulpha Marma wsr to Abhighata Parinama May-14 Mar-16
30 Dr. Rahul Kumar Gupta Dr.Swati  S. Bedekar Effect of occupational stress on joints with special reference to anatomical changes in manibandha sandhi of auto rickshaw drivers May-13 Mar-15
31 Dr. Sajin. C.P Dr. B.G. Kulkarni The study of asthi dhatu with special reference to relation between bone mineral density and chronic tamaka shwasa May-13 Mar-15
32 Dr. Chandrika Urs P Dr.B.G. Kulkarni A Study of shankha marma with special reference to regional and applied anatomy May-13 Mar-15
33 Dr Harikrishna Kamath Dr.Swati S Bedekar A correlative study on prapani pramana and height of individuals in various prakrithi May-13 Mar-15
34 Dr Kavita S Butali Dr.Uma B Gopal Anatomical Study of purusha with special Reference To mamsa rajju. May-13 Mar-15
35 Dr Thrigil Krishnan Dr Uma B Gopal A Study of paada shareera with special Reference to arch of foot in different prakruthi individuals May-13 Mar-15
36 Dr Afil M Alex Dr. Uma B Gopal Anatomical study of snayu based on
cadaveric dissection
 May -2012 Mar-14
37 Dr Vinay Shankar Bharadwaj Dr.Swati S Bedekar A cadaveric study on lohitaksha marma  May -2012 Mar-14
38 Dr Santosh Kumar Sagar Dr. SwatiSBedekar A study on jihvabandha as pranayatana in the
per-view of anatomy
 May -2012 Mar-14
39 Dr Diny Thomas Dr. B.G. Kulkarni A cadaveric study on nabhi marma  May -2012 Mar-14
40 Dr Rajani Dhaded Dr. B.G. Kulkarni A cadaveric study on sevani  May -2012 Mar-14
41 Dr Shobha G Dr Uma B Gopal A cadaveric study on kanta as a pranayatana  May -2012 Mar-14

RESEARCH PROJECT COMPLETED

Sl. No. Investigator Title Funding agency
1 Dr. B.G Kulkarni
Professor
Department of ShareeraRachana
Study of JanuSandhi (Knee Joint) of Heavy Vehicle Drivers Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bengaluru

ON-GOING RESEARCH PROJECTS

Sl. No. Investigator Title Funding agency Year
1 Dr Uma B Gopal
DrAnju Thomas
DrArunraj
A Comparative Study of Shira Pramana in Normal and Mentally Challenged Individuals with special reference to Intelligence Quotient RGUHS Bengaluru 2018

PUBLICATIONS

2013

  1. Shobha G, Afil M Alex, Uma Gopal. A case of elongated styloid process of skull (eagle’s syndrome). Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine 2013; 1(7). (2321-1563)
  2. Diny Thomas, Kulkarni Bhagwan Gangadhar. A case of fusion of thoracic vertebra. Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine2013; 1(5):23-6. (2321-1563)
  3. Afil M Alex, Uma B Gopal.  A Review on Snayu (Nervous Tissue) Based on its Functional Aspects. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal 2013;1(6):7-14.(2320 5091)
  4. Rajani Bhalachandra Dhaded, Bhagwan Gangadhar Kulkarni, Gururaj Jahagirdar. Absence of Palmaris Longus Muscle-A Case Report.  Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine 2013   ;1(1): 33-35.(2321-1563)

2014

  1. Chandrika , Kulkarni Bhagwan Gangadhar. A review on relevance of Shirogata marma in sports related traumatic injuries. Prajnanam May 2014; 1(1): 51-56
  2. Vinaya Shankar Bharadwaj B, Uma B Gopal, Gururaj  Jahagirdar, Shobha G. A rare branching pattern of arch of Aorta with four branches arising from it- A case report           . Anatomica Karnataka- An International Journal Aug 2014; 8(2):15-18(P-ISSN- 2229-7545,E-ISSN-2249-5398)

2015

  1. Jahagirdar Gururaj, Poornima B, Nishakumari. New outlook on concept of Ama: Free radicals or xenobiotics. Int J Of Ayu And Pharma ResJan Feb 2015; 6(1):73-79(ISSN 2322 – 0910)
  2. Diny Thomas, Kulkarni B G. Nabhi Marma- An embryological and anatomical focus. J-ISM(Journal of Indian system of medicine) Oct- Dec 2014;2(4): 201-5 (ISSN- 2320 4419)
  3. Swathi Bedekar, Uma B Gopal, Kulkarni B G, J Gururaj, T Anju. Ideal longevity of life as per Ayurveda. Int J of Res Ayu Pharma Sep Oct 2015; 6(5): 583-5 (ISSN 2322 – 0910)
  4. Santosh Kumar Sagar, Bedekar Swati S, Kulkarni Bhagwan Gangadhar. Variation in the proximal attachment of the third head of Biceps Brachii muscle- A case report. Jnana srotas July-Dec 2014; 9(2): 28-31 (ISSN-2321-2896)
  5. Thomas Anju, Uma B Gopal, Bedekar Swati S, Urs Chandrika. High division of Sciatic nerve- A case report. Jnana srotas July-Dec 2014; 9(2): 43-49 (ISSN-2321-2896)
  6. Gangadhar Kulkarni, Swati S Bedekar, Prasanna N Rao, Girish K J. Occupation and Osteoarthritis of Knee joint- A review. Journal of Ayurveda Physicians & Surgeons  2015; 2(3): (eISSN 2394-6350)

2016

  1. Aneesh.T, Swati.S.Bedekar, B.G Kulkarni, Varun Vinayak, Visakh.S.Ravi. Ayurvedic Understanding of Biomechanical Dysfunction of Ankle Joint with special reference to Gulpha Marma Abhighatha. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research. 2016;4(7):74-77. (2322 – 0902 (P)
  2. Uma B. Gopal, Bedekar Swati Sanjay, Bharadwajvinaya Shankara, Kulkarni B.G. A review on Apastambha marma. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. Mar – Apr 2016;7(2):1-3 (ISSN E-2229-3566)
  3. Kulkarni, B.G. (2016): Insight on Krukatika Marma with Reference to the Injury of Cranio-Cervical Joints. JAPS vol.3 (2):49-53.
  4. Kulkarni BG, Kanthi GM. Ancient thoughts of neuro-vascular injuries of neck in the pre view of marma (vital points): A review. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. May – Jun 2016;7(3):8-12 (ISSN (online) 2229-3566. ISSN (Print) 2277-4343)
  5. Aneesh.T, Swati.S.Bedekar, B.G Kulkarni, Varun Vinayak, Visakh.S.Ravi. Ayurvedic Understanding of Biomechanical Dysfunction of Ankle Joint with special reference to Gulpha Marma Abhighatha. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research. 2016;4(7):74-77. (2322 – 0902 (P)
  6. Uma B. Gopal, Bedekar Swati Sanjay, Bharadwajvinaya Shankara, Kulkarni B.G. A review on Apastambha marma. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. Mar – Apr 2016;7(2):1-3 (ISSN E-2229-3566)
  7. Uma B. Gopal, Bedekar Swati Sanjay, Bharadwajvinaya Shankara, Kulkarni B.G. A review on Apastambha marma. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. Mar – Apr 2016;7(2):1-3 (ISSN E-2229-3566)
  8. Thomas Anju, G M Kanthi , A Review On Fetal Biometry: Modern And Ayurvedic Perspective.IJAPR.Int. J. Ayur. Pharma Research, 2016;4(11):18-25.ISSN: 2322 – 0902(P) ISSN:2322-0910 (O)
  9. Thomas Anju, G M Kanthi, A Critical Analysis of Garbhavridhi (Growth Of Embryo/Fetus) in the Three Trimesters.Ayushdhara .An International Journal of Research in AYUSH and Allied Systems| May – June 2016 | Vol 3 | Issue 3. ISSN: 2393-9583 (P)/ 2393-9591 (O)

2017

  1. Aneesh.T, Archana Madhavi, Swati.S.Bedekar. The physio anatomical view of kledaka kapha AYUSHDHARA May – June 2016; 3(3):(ISSN: 2393-9583 (P)/ 2393-9591 (O))
  2. Rahul Kumar Gupta, Swati S Bedekar, Ashutosh Chaturvedi. An open labelled clinical study to evaluate the occupational stress over wrist joint (manibandh sandi) among Indian auto rickshaw drivers. Int.J.Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2017;8(1):52-6(ISSN (online) 2229-3566)
  3. Ankit Tyagi, Uma B. Gopal. A retrospective study of Atisthoulaya (obesity)- A burning problem in women. WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 2017; 6(3):855-860(ISSN 2278 – 4357)
  4. Nirmala Joshi, Swati S Bedekar. Concept of Rasayana for a Better Health – A Review. J Ayurveda Integr Med Sci 2017;1:209-212.( ISSN: 2456-3110)
  5. Swapna H N , Uma B Gopal , Swati S Bedeker. A review on understanding of Dhamani, International Journal of Applied Ayurved Research JAN-FEB 2017; 2(11):1637-42(ISSN: 2347- 6362)
  6. Maity Gouranga, Bedekar swati sanjay, Uma B Gopal.A review on Basti marma. UJAHM 2017, 05 (01): Page 15-16(ISSN 2347-2375)
  7. Shobha G & Uma B Gopal. An Insight On Kanta As Pranayatana. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal August, 2017; 5(8): 2954 -2961 (ISSN: 2320 5091)
  8. Uma B Gopal, Swapna H N. A Study of Arthavavaha Srotas with Special Reference to Maithunaasahishnutha (dyspareunia). AYUSHDHARA, 2016;4(2):1090-1099.
  9. Anju Thomas, G M Kanthi. A study on the relation between maternal prakruti and fetal biometry in second trimester. Jnana srotas Jan-June 2017;11(1): 31-34(ISSN-2321-2896)

2018

  1. Ankit Tyagi and Uma B Gopal. Study on regional and applied anatomy of kukundara marma. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2018;9(1):70-76(ISSN (online) 2229-3566)
  2. Vislavath Srikanth, Anju Thomas, Jyoti Umarji. Solitary Simple Renal Cyst: A Case Report. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development 2018; 2(1): 1606-10 ISSN: 2456-6470
  3. Jyoti Umarji, Shobha G, Vislavath Srikanth. Mixed Nodular Liver Cirrhosis:A Case Report. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) July Aug 2018; 2(5): 1825-9(ISSN No: 2456 – 6470
  4. Anju Thomas, G M Kanthi. A Study on Fetal Biometry in Third Trimester in Relation to Maternal Prakruti. J Ayurveda Integr Med Sci 2018;3(4):28-35(2456-3110)
  5. Umarji J, Gopal UB, Vislavath S. An unusual origin of brachiocephalic and left common carotid arteries as a common trunk from the arch of aorta: a case report. Int J Health Sci Res. 2018; 8(9):292-296. (ISSN: 2249-9571)
  6. Srikanth V, Umarji J,Thomas A. A Morphological variation in Thyroid Gland-A case report.Int j health sci Res.2018;8(9):287-291.

2019

  1. Jeevan Kumar Giri, Uma BG, Pratikshya Majagaiyan , Anju Thomas, Surendra Chaudhary, Santosh Kumar Singrapu,Manu Krishnan K, Akshata Kichadi. Sacralization of fifth lumbar vertebra –A case report. European Journal of Biomedical AND Pharmaceutical sciences. 2019;6(1): 671-674.
  2. Santosh kumar Singarapu , Akashata. B. K, Jeevankumar Giri , Manu Krishnan Krishnan. K, Shobha. G, Uma. B. Gopal. Case Report: Accessory Great Saphenous Vein. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) 2018;2(6): 1188-90.ISSN No: 2456 – 6470
  3. Uma. B. Gopal , Chaitra S, Santhosh Singarapu , Pranav Krishnan. An observational study of Anencephalous fetuses mounted as museum specimen. Int J Anat Res 2018, Vol 6(2.1):5083-86. ISSN 2321-4287
  4. Chaitra S, Uma B. Gopal. An ayurvedic approach for ideal dentition through validated structured questionnaire. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences 2018;7(4):1207-1214(ISSN 2278 – 4357)
  5. Jeevan kumar Giri, Anju Thomas, Pratikshya Majagaiyan, Uma. B. Gopal, Swati S. Bedekar. Concept of VitapaMarma- A Conceptual Review Article. Int J Ayu Pharm Chem 2019;10(2):255-64([e ISSN 2350-0204])
  6. Surendra Chaudhary, Uma B. Gopal, Muteeba Naz, Jeevan Kumar Giri, Simi C. P.,Daiarisa Rymbai. Rectus Sternalis Muscle – A Rare Variant. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Jan Feb 2019; 3(2):299-301
  7. Surendra Chaudhary, Uma B. Gopal, Jeevan Kumar Giri. Sacrococcygeal Synostosis – A Case Report. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research March 2019;9(3):323-6(ISSN: 2249-9571)
  8. Prasanna S., Sandeep Kashyap , Megha Chandarana , Nirav Patel, Siddharth Roy. Coeliac trunk and its anatomical variation: A Case Report. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2019; 10(2):73-75(ISSN Online:2229-3566)
  9. Uma B. Gopal, Ganesh Babu, Muteeba Naz, Simi C.P, Daiarisa Rymbai. Understanding Regional Anatomy of Indrabasti Marma- A Cadaveric Study. Sch Int J Tradit Complement Med, Aug 2019; 2(6): 90-94( ISSN 2616-8634(Print)|ISSN 2617-3891 (Online))
  10. Surendra Chaudhary, Uma B. Gopal, Prasanna S, Jeevan Kumar Giri. Variation in Renal Blood Supply and Its Clinical Significance- A Case Report. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research October 2019; 9(10): 170-4(ISSN: 2249-9571)
  11. Ashok Kumar B, Anju Thomas, Surendra Chaudhary. A Review on Sira Vyadhana: An important Para-Surgical Procedure of Ayurveda. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research October 2019; 9(11): 62-68(ISSN: 2249-9571)
  12. Uma. B. Gopal, Santosh Kumar Singarapu, Akshata.BK, Manu Krishnan K, Jeevan Kumar Giri. Frequency of Metopic Suture ,in male and female skulls mounted as Museum Specimen. Int J of Research and Analytical Reviews June 2019; 6(2) : 861-8(e-ISSN 2348-1269)
  13. Manu Krishnan. K, Uma. B. Gopal, Pranav Krishnan, Santosh kumar singarapu, Akshata. BK, Jeevankumargiri. Bifid Xiphoid Process- Case Report. International Journal of trends in scientific Research and development Jan Feb 2019; 3(2): 444-5, e.ISSN 2456-6470
  14. Akshata. B. Kichadi, Dr. Uma B Gopal, Santhosh Singarapu, Chaitra. S, Manukrishnan. K, Jeevankumar. Giri. A Review On Genetic Dominant Disorder – Polidactyly- Case Report. International Journal of trends in scientific Research and development Jan Feb 2019; 3(2): 258-60, e.ISSN 2456-6470
  15. Anju Thomas, Vinod Kumar Alapatti. A Case Report of Unilateral Absence of Palmaris Longus. Int J of Health Sciences & Research 2019;9(7): 285-88(ISSN-2249- 9571)
  16. Jeevan Kumar Giri, Anju Thomas, Pratikshya Majagaiyan, Uma B. G. Cleft lip and cleft palate – A case report. Int Ayurvedic Med Journal Dec 2018-Jan 2019; 7(1): 1587-91(ISSN-2320- 5091)

2020

  1. Jyoti Umarji and Uma B Gopal. A Correlative survey study on Greeva pramana (Neck length) and Height of the Individuals. J Pharm Sci Innov. 2020;9(1):39-45(ISSN : 2277 –4572)
  2. Daiarisa Rymbai, Anju Thomas, Uma B Gopal, Surendra Chaudhary, Muteeba Naz, Simi C P.  Variation in the length of Sigmoid Colon -A Case Report. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews. February 2020;7(1):797-9(E-ISSN 2348-1269)
  3. Muteeba Naz, Uma B. Gopal, Simi C P, Surendra Chaudhary, Daiarisa Rymbai. An Unusual Shapes of Stomach:Case Report on Hourglass and Retort Shape. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Feb 2020; 4(2):97-99
  4. Simi. C. P, Uma B. Gopal, SurendraChaudhary, Muteebanaz, DaiarisaRymbai, Manu Krishnan. Pons Hepatis of Quadrate Lobe- A Morphogical Variation of Liver. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Feb 2020;4(2): 107-109 (e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470)
  5. Ashok Kumar B, Anju Thomas. Role of nutrition in Madhumeha. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine, Vol 11 (4 S), Supplement of AMRUTA 2019 , 1-7ISSN No: 0976-5921
  6. Uma B. Gopal, Surendra Chaudhary, Daiarisa Rymbai. A Case Report of a Rare and Unusually Large Thymus Gland and its Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews March 2020; 7(1): 892-900 (E-ISSN 2348-1269, P- ISSN 2349-5138)
  7. Ashok Kumar B, Anju Thomas, Uma B Gopal. Importance of Raktamokshana in blood-purification. Int Ayu Med J March 2020;8(3): 2995-3000 (ISSN: 2320 5091)
  8. Muteeba  Naz,  Uma  B. Gopal, Shailaja U. An overview on concept  of Tulya Gotra  and Consanguinity. J  Ayurveda  Integr  Med  Sci 2020;5(5):333-341
  9. Daiarisa  Rymbai,  Anju  Thomas.  A  Review  on  Comprehensive  Understanding of  Apastambha  Marma  and  its  Clinical  Significance. International  Journal  of Ayurveda and Pharma Research. 2020;8(Suppl 2):112-16